Main Events during the Gandhian Era

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Main Events during the Gandhian Era

Nehru Committee Report (1928)

The Committee was set up under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to determine the principles of the constitution before actually drafting it. The chief architects of the report were Motilal Nehru and Tej Bahadur Sapru. The recommendation evoked a lively debate concerning the goal of India-Dominion Status or Complete Independence.

14 Points of Jinnah (March 9,1929)

Jinnah, the leader of Muslim League, did not accept the Nehru Report. Jinnah thereafter drew up a list of demands, which was called '14 points of Jinnah'.

Lahore Session (Dec., 1929)

At its annual session held in Lahore in Dec, 1929, under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru the Indian National Congress passed a resolution declaring 'Pooma Swaraj' (Complete Independence) to be the goal of the national movement.
On Dec. 31, 1929, the newly adopted tricolour flag was unfurled and Jan. 26 was fixed as the Independence Day which was to be celebrated every year, pleading to the people not to submit to British rule any longer.

Dandi March/Salt Satyagraha (1930)

To achieve the goal of 'Complete Independence', Gandhi launched another civil disobedience movement. Alongwith 78 followers, Gandhi started his famous march from Sabarmati Ashramory March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandi (Navsari District) to break the Salt Law. Gandhi covered a distance of 240 miles in 24 days (March 12 - April 5). On reaching the seashore on April 6, he broke the Salt Law by picking up salt from the seashore. By picking a handful of salt, Gandhi inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement, a movement that was to remain unsurpassed in the history of Indian National Movement for the countrywide mass participation it unleashed. The movement became so powerful that is sparked off patriotism even among the Indian soldiers in the army. The Garhwal soldiers refused to fire on the people at Peshwar. Gandhiji was arrested on May 5, 1930. This was followed by another round of boycott of foreign goods and it took the shape of a nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement in which ladies also participated. Soon thereafter followed repressive measures such as mass arrests, lathi-charge, police-firing etc. About 1,00,000 people went in jail.

The First Round Table Conference (1930)

It was held in London on Nov. 12, 1930, to discuss the Simon Commission, but was totally boycotted by the Indian National Congress. The Commission had proposed self-government in the provinces and federation of British India and the princely states at the Centre. However, the representative of the Muslim League, Liberals and other parties had assembled for the discussion on the commission report. But in absence of the premier political party, the First Round Table Conference had to be adjourned to Jan. 2,1931.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact/Delhi Pact (March 5,1931)

Early in 1931 two moderate statesman, Sapru and Jayakax initiated efforts to bring about rapprochement between Gandhi and the government. Six meeting with Viceroy Lord Irwin finally led to the signing of a pact between the two on March 5,1931, whereby the congress called off the movement and agreed to join the Second Round Table Conference. Regarding Gandhi-Irwin Pact J.L. Nehru remarks, 'This is the way the worlds ends,/ Not with a bang, but a whimper'.

The Second Round Table Conference (1931)

It was held in London during the viceroyalty of Lord Willingdon during Sep. - Dec. 1931 and Gandhiji attended it on behalf of Indian National Congress. Nothing much was expected from the Conference for the imperialist political forces, which ultimately controlled the British Government in London, were opposed to any political or economic concession being given to India which could lead to its independence. The Conference, however, failed as Gandhiji could not agree with British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald on his policy of communal representation and refusal of the British government on the basic Indian demand for freedom. The conference closed on Dec. 1,1931, without any concrete result.

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