Tughlaq Dynasty ( 1320 - 1414 AD )

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Tughlaq Dynasty ( 1320 - 1414 AD )

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ( 1320 - 25 )

» Khusrau Khan, the last king of the Khilji dynasty was killed by Ghazi Malik. Ghazi Malik ascended the throne assuming the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
» He died in an accident and his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.

Mohammad-bin Tughlaq ( 1325 - 51 )

» Prince Jauna, son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325.
» He tried to introduce many administrative reforms. He had 5 ambitious projects for which he became particularly debatable.

1. Taxation in the Doab (1326)
The Sultan made an ill-advised financial experiment in the Doab between the Ganges and Yamuna. He not only increased the rate of taxation but also revived and created some additional Abwabs or cesses. Although the share of the state remained as in time of Alauddin, it was fixed arbitrary not on the basis of actual produce. Prices were also fixed artificially for covering the produce into money. It is said that the increase was twenty fold and to this were added Ghari or house tax and the Charahi or pasture tax. The Sultan created a new department of Agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi. The main object of this department was to bring more land under cultivation by giving direct help to peasants.

2. Transfer of Capital (1327)
The most controversial step which Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq under took soon after his accession was the so-called transfer of capital from Delhi to Devagiri. Devagiri had been a base for the expansion of Turkish rule in South India. It appears that the Sultan wanted to make Devagiri second capital so that he might be able to control South India better. Devagiri was thus named Daulatabad. After a couple of years Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad largely became he soon found that just as he could not control South India from Delhi, he could not control North from Daulatabad.

3. Introduction of Token Currency (1329)
Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to introduce bronze coins, which were to have same value as the silver coins. Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq might have been successful if he could prevent people from forging the new coins. He was not able to do so and soon the new coins began to be greatly devalued in markets. Finally Mohammad-bin- Tughlaq decided to withdraw the token currency. He promised to exchange silver pieces for bronze coins.

4. Proposed Khurasan Expedition (1329)
The Sultan had a vision of universal conquest. He decided to conquer Khurasan and Iraq and mobalised a huge army for the purpose. He was encouraged to do so by Khurasaru nobles who had taken shelter in his court. Moreover, there was instability in Khurasan on account of the unpopular rule of Abu Said. This project was also abandoned.

5. Qarachil Expedition (1330)
This expedition was launched in Kumaon hills in Himalayas allegedly to counter Chinese incursions. It also appears that the expedition was directed against some refractory tribes in Kumaon-Garhwal region with the object of bringing them under Delhi Sultanate. The first attack was a success but when the rainy season set in, the invaders suffered terribly.

» His five projects led to revolts. His last days were spent in checking the revolts (altogether 36 revolts in 25 years).
» He died in Thatta while campaigning in Sindh against Taghi, a turkish slave.

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