Indian Constitution
General Knowledge

National Symbols

National Flag

» The National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesaria) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July, 1947.
» Apart from non-statutory instructions issued by the Government from time to time, display of the National Flag is governed by the provisions of the Em¬blems and names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No.12 of 1950) and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971).
» The Flag Code of India, 2002, took effect from 26 January, 2002 which brings together all such laws, conventions, practices and instructions for the guidance and benefit of all concerned.
» In an important judgement in January, 2004 the Supreme Court (under the chairmanship of the Chief Justice B. N. Khare) pronounce that unfurling (hoist¬ing) of National Flag is a fundamental right under Article 19 (1) (A).
Note : For the first time the National Flag of India was hoisted in the mid-night of 14th August, 1947.

State Emblem

» The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).
» In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26th January, 1950 only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bellshaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning 'Turth Alone' Triumphs, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.
» The use of the state emblem of India, as the official seal of the Government of India, is regulated by the State of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005.

National Anthem

» The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January, 1950. It was first sung on 27 Decem¬ber, 1911 at the Kolkata Session (Chairman—Pt.Vishan Narayan Dutt) of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas.
» Rabindranath Tagore had published it in 'Tatvabodhini' in 1912 with the title 'Bharat Bhagya Vidhata' and translated it into English in 1919 with the title 'Morning song of India'. The credit of composing the present tune (Music) of our national anthem goes to Captain Ram Singh Thakur (an I N A sepoy)
» Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version of the first and last lines of the stanza (Playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions.

National Song

» The song 'Vande Mataram' composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung at the 1896 session (Chairman—Rahimtulla Sayani) of Indian National Congress.
» The song was published in the novel Anandmath', authored by Bankimchan¬dra Chatterji and was adopted as the National Song on 26 January ,1950.
» Playing time of this song one (1) minute and five (5) seconds (65 seconds). No body can be forced is to sing the National Song.
Note : Session of Parliament begins with 'Jana-gana-mana 'and concludes with Vande Mataram.'

National Calendar

» The National Calendar based on the Saka Era, Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22nd March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes: (i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcast by All India Radio, (iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and (iv) Government communications addressed to the members of the public.
» Dates of the National Calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.

National Animal : The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris.
National Bird : The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus.
National Flower : Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn).
National Tree : The Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis).
National Fruit : Mango (Manigifera indica).
National Aquatic Animal : The mammal Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gan- getica).