Human Blood

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Functions & Blood group

Functions of blood

1. To control the temperature of the body and to protect the body from diseases.
2. Clotting of blood.
3. Transportation of O2, CO2, digested food, conduction of hormones etc.
4. To help in establishing coordination among different parts.

Clotting of Blood

Three important reactions during clotting of blood.
1. Thromboplastin + Prothrombin + Calcium = Thrombin
2. Thrombin + Fibrinogen = Fibrin
3. Fibrin + Blood Corpuscles = Clot

The formation of Prothrombin and Fibrinogen of the blood plasma takes place with the help of Vitamin K. Vitamin K is helpful in making clots of blood.
Normally clotting takes the time from 2 to 5 minutes.
The compulsory protein in making clots of blood is Fibrinogen.

Blood Group of human

Blood Group was discovered by Landsteiner in 1900. For this, he was awarded with Nobel Prize in the year 1930.
» The main reason behind the difference in blood of human is the glyco protein which is found in Red Blood Corpuscles called antigen.
» Antigen are of two types - Antigen A and Antigen B.
On the basis of presence of Antigen or Glyco Protein, there are four group of blood in human:
(a) That contains Antigen A - Blood Group A.
(b) That contains Antigen B - Blood Group B.
(c) That contains both the Antigens A and B - Blood Group AB.
(d) That contains neither of the Antigens - Blood Group O.

An opposite type of protein, is found in blood plasma. This is called antibody. This is also of two types - Antibody 'a' and Antibody 'b'.

Blood Transfusion

Antigen 'A' and antibody 'a', Antigen 'B' and antibody 'b' cannot live together. In case of so happened these get most sticky, which spoils the blood. This is called agglutination of blood. Therefore, in blood transfusion adjustment of Antigen and Antibody should be done carefully so that agglutination of blood do not takes place.
Blood Group O is called Universal Donor because it does not contain any antigen.
Blood Group AB is called Universal Receptor because it does not contain any antibody.

Rh factor

In the year 1940, Landsteiner and Wiener discovered a different type of antigen in the blood. They discovered it in the Rhesus monkey, therefore, it is called Rh-factor. In the blood of that person it is found, their blood is called Rh-positive and in the blood of that person it is not found, is called Rh-negative.
At the time of blood transfusion Rh-factor is also tested. Rh+ is given to Rh+ and Rh" is given Rh-blood only.
If the blood of Rh+ blood group is transferred to a person with Rh-blood group, then due to the less quantity for the first time there does not seem any bad effect but if this process is repeated then due to agglutination the person with Rh-blood group dies.

Erythroblastosis Foetalis

If the father's blood is Rh+ and the mother's blood is Rh- then the child to be born dies at the pregnancy or short span of time after the birth. (This happens in the case of second issue).
The possible blood group of the child on the basis of blood group of mother and father.
Haemolymph : Body fluid of arthropoda is colourless made of plasma and haemocytes. It donot contain any respiratory pigment

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