Phanerogamous or Floral plant

Phanerogamous or Floral plant

Plants of this group is well developed. All the plants in this group bears flowers, fruits and seeds. Plants in this group can be classified into two sub-groups Gymnosperm and Angiosperm.

(A) Gymnosperm

1. These plants are in the forms of trees and bushes. Plant body are differentiated into root, stem & leaves.
2. Plants are woody, perennial and tall. Plant bear naked seed.
3. Its tap roots are well developed.
4. Pollination takes place through air.

The longest plant of the Plant kingdom, Sequoia gigcntia comes under it. Its height is 120 meters. This is also called Red Wood of California.
» The smallest plant is Zaimia Pygmia.
» Living fossils are Cycas, Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia.
» Ginkgo biloba is also called Maiden hair tree.
» Ovule and Antherozoids of Cycas is the largest in Plant kingdom.
» Corolloid roof of cycas help in absorption of water and fixation of nitrogen.
» The pollen grains of Pinus are so much in number that later it turns into Sulphur showers.

Importance of Gymnosperm
1. As a food - Sago is made by extracting the juice from the stems of Cycas. Therefore, Cycas is called Sago-palm.
2. Wood - The wood of Pine, Sequoia, Deodar, Spruce etc is used for making furniture.
3. Vapour oil - We get Tarpin oil from the trees of Pine, Cedrus oil from Deodar tree and Cedcast oil from Juniperous wood.
4. Tannin - It is useful in tanning and making ink.
5. Resin - Resin is extracted from some conical plants which are used in making varnish, polish, paint etc.
» Resin is the product of coniferous tree.
» Best example of polyembryony is citrus.

(B) Angiosperm

1. In the plants of this sub-group seeds are found inside the fruits.
2. In these plants root leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds are fully developed. In the plants of this sub-group there is seed-coat in seeds.
On the basis of number of cotyledons plants are divided into two categories –
Monocotyledon plants: Those plants which have only one cotyledon in seed.
Dicotyledon plants : Those plants which have two cotyledon in its seed are called dicotyledons.
» Leaves are the lung of plant.
» Plant from which coca and chocolate are obtained is a shurb.
» Banana is a shurb.
» Trochodendron is a vesselless angiosperm.