Short Passages Comprehension - XI

Please study carefully the comprehension given below. The passages is followed by a set of questions choose the best answer to each question.

Alleviation of rural poverty has been one of the primary objectives of planned development in India. Ever since the inception of planning, the polices and the programmes have been designed and redesigned with this aim. The problem of rural poverty was brought into a sharper focus during the Sixth Plan. The Seventh Plan too emphasised growth with social justice. It was realised that a sustainable strategy of poverty alleviation has to be based on increasing the productive employment opportunities in the process of growth itself.
However, to the extent the process of growth bypasses some sections of population, it is necessary to formulate specific poverty alleviation programmes for generation of a certain minimum level of income for the rural poor. Rural development implies both the economic betterment of people as well as greater social transformation. Increased participation of people in the rural development process, decentralisation of planning, better enforcement of land reforms and greater access to credit and inputs go a long way in prospects for economic development improvements in health, education drinking water, energy supply sanitation and housing coupled with attitudinal changes also facilitate their social development.
Rural poverty is inextricably linked with low rural productivity and unemployment, including underemployment. Hence, it is imperative to improve productivity and increase employment in rural areas. Moreover, more employment needs to be generated at higher levels of productivity in order to generate higher output. Employment at miserably low levels of productivity and incomes is already a problem of far greater magnitude than unemployment as such. It is estimated that in 1987-88 the rate of unemployment was only 3% and inclusive of the underemployed, it was around 5%.
As per the currently used methodology in the Planning Commission, poverty for the same year was estimated to be 30%. This demonstrates that even though a large proportion of the rural population was working’ it was difficult for them to eke out a living even at subsistence levels from it. It is true that there has been a considerable decline in the incidence of rural poverty over time. In terms of absolute numbers of poor, the decline has been much less. While this can be attributed to the demographic factor, the fact remains that after 40 years of planned development about 200 million are still poor in rural India. <

Ques 1. According to the passage, rural poverty is associated with which of the following one or more factors?
(1) Want of effectiveness of productive efforts.
(2) Dearth of employment opportunities.
(3) Better sanitation and housing facilities.
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Only 3
(d) 1 and 2
(e) 2 and 3

Ques 2. Which of the following statements is/are true in the context of the passage?
1. There has been a significant increase in the number of the rural poor.
2. Before the Sixth Plan, the policies regarding alleviation of rural poverty were almost nonexistent.
3. Social change coupled with financial upliftment is implied in rural development.
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Only 3
(d) 1 and 2
(e) 1 and 3

Ques 3. Under which of the following circumstances is employment a greater problem than unemployment?
(a) There cannot be such circumstances
(b) In rural areas where employment opportunities are less
(c) In urban areas where sanitary conditions are subnormal
(d) In areas where magnitude of unemployment is more serious
(e) None of the above

Ques 4. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage as an important factor for rural development?
(a) Better enforcement of land reforms
(b) Greater access of credit and inputs
(c) Transferring planning from central to local authorities
(d) Involvement of rural folk in the development process
(e) Enhancing production in the various new industries in rural areas

Ques 5. The passage deals mainly with . . . . . . . . . .
(a) the shortcomings in the implementation of poverty alleviation
(b) improvement in industrial growth strategies
(c) alleviation of rural poverty
(d) methodology of Planning Commission
(e) the growth rate of unemployment

Ques 6. Which of the following necessitates formulation of specific poverty alleviation programmes?
(a) Certain sections are not covered in the process of growth
(b) The sharper focus given in the Sixth Plan
(c) Extension of social justice to rural areas
(d) To keep the rural population outside the periphery of growth
(e) None of the above

Ques 7. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the passage?
(a) The number of the rural poor people in India is quite substantial
(b) The development activities during the past 40 years had all been futile
(c) Alleviation of rural poverty needs a strong political will
(d) The unemployment situation in the country has been worsening year after year
(e) None of the above

Ques 8. What is the desired probable impact of formulation of specific poverty alleviation programmes?
(a) Provision of good sanitation and housing for the rural poor
(b) Ensuring certain minium income for the rural poor
(c) Change in attitude of the rural masses
(d) Increased involvement of the rural people in developmental activities
(e) None of the above

Ques 9. Which one or more of the following statements show/shows a striking paradox?
1. In 1987-88, the rate of unemployment was only 3% and inclusive of underemployment it was 5%.
2. Unemployment together with underemployment was 5 % whereas the poverty was 30%.
3. More employment needs to be generated at higher levels of productivity in order to generate higher output.
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Only 3
(d) 1 and 2
(e) 2 and 3

Answers :
(1) (a), (2) (c), (3) (d), (4) (a), (5) (b), (6) (b), (7) (c), (8) (b), (9) (c).