Land forms created by the actions of sea waves

Sea Cliff

» The base of the rocks on the coast get eroded because of the impact of the ocean waves and notches develop in these rocks.
» The crest of the rock overhangs the notch. These notches in the rocks gradually extend landwards over a period of time. Then the crest falls and a steep cliff, which has receded away from the sea is formed.

Sea cave

» Rocks on the coast have many cracks. They become wider and wider with the impact of the waves, creating small caves. They are called sea caves.
» Such sea cliffs and sea caves are observed at Shrivandhan, Ratnagiri, Malvan, Vengurle etc.


» The fine sand and other material that flows along with the waves get deposited in a direction parallel to the sea coast.
» This deposition of sand is called a beach.
» There are extensive beaches in the coastal regions of the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and West Bengal in India and in other countries like Bangladesh and Canada.

Sand bar

» A deposition of sand which results in a long, narrow embankment in the sea near the coast is called a sand bar.


» A shallow lake is formed between the sand and the sea coast. It is called a lagoon. Such a lake is called Kayal in Kerala.