Precis Writing on The Need of Vocational Education

Make a precis of each of the following passages. Suggest a suitable title also for your precis.

Whatever may be true of other countries in India at any rate, where more than eighty percent of the population is agricultural, and another ten percent industrial, it is a crime to make education merely literary and to unfit boys and girls for manual work in after life. Indeed I hold that as the larger part of our time is devoted to labour for earning our bread, our children, must from their infancy be taught the dignity of such labour. Our children should not be so taught as to despise labour, There is no reason why a peasant's son after having gone to a school should become useless, as he does become as an agricultural laborer. It is a sad thing that our school boys look upon manual labour with disfavor if not contempt. Moreover, in India, if we expect, as we must every boy and girl of school going age to attend public schools, we have not the means .to finance education in accordance with the existing style nor are millions of parents able to pay the fees that are at present imposed. Education to be universal must, therefore, be free. Even under an ideal system of Government, we shall not be able to devote two thousand million rupees which we should require for funding education for all the children of school going age. It follows, therefore, that our children must be made to pay in labour partly or wholly for all the education they receive. Such universal education can be made possible only by (to my thinking) hand spinning and hand weaving. But for the purposes of my proposition, it is immaterial whether we have spinning or any other form of labour so long as it can be turned to account. Only it will be found upon examination, that on practical, profitable and extensive scale, there is no occupation other than the processes connected with cloth production which can be introduced in our schools throughout India.


India is a country where 90 percent people are engaged in manual labour. Ironically, our present literary educational system does not teach the young men and women the dignity of labour. Children should be taught the dignity of manual labour from the very beginning of education. If India wishes to attain the goal of total literacy, every boy and girl is expected to earn while he/she learns. Parents cannot afford huge, expenditure on education. On the part of government, funding of education tQ make it universal requires 2000 million rupees. This is also not possible. The need of the hour is vocational education. The i activities relating to cloth manufacturing will teach the students to pay expenditure on education themselves.