Indian Economy
General Knowledge

Land Reforms Programmes in India

Land Reforms Programmes in India

Land Reforms Programmes in India include :
* Elimination of intermediaries
* Tenancy Reforms
* Determination of ceiling of holdings per family
* Distribution of surplus land among landless people
* Consolidation of holdings (Chakbandi)
» By the end of first five year plan middlemen had been removed (except small areas).

The following measures were made effective for the betterment of farmers :
(i) Regulation of tax
(ii) Security for the rights of farmers
(iii) Right of land ownership for the farmers

» For the reorganisation of agriculture land holding mainly two measures were taken - (i) Land ceiling and (ii) Chakbandi.
» Land ceiling determines the maximum land which can be held by a farmer. Holding more than that area will be illegal.
» Chakbandi of land means to aggregate the divided and broken land.
» The land within area less than 1 hectare, is called marginal land holding, 1 to 4 hectare area is called small land holding and the land within area more than 4 hectare, is called large land holding.
» Chakbandi was implemented first time in India in the year 1920 in Baroda.
» The irrigation potential in India in 2000-01 was 9.47 crore hectare.
» Green Revolution was started in the Third Five Year Plan.
» The most positive effect of Green Revolution was on wheat. There was 500% increase in crop production.
» Unorganised sources of agriculture finance are money-lenders, money- dealers, relatives, businessmen, landlords and commission agents.
» Organised sources of agriculture finance are Co-operative Committees, Co-operative Banks, Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks, the Government etc.
» Co-operative Credit Organisation started first time in 1904.
» Primary Co-operative Committees provide credit for short period.
» State Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks provide credit for long period.
» Land Development Bank provides long-term loans.
» Land Development Bank was established in the year 1919 in the form of Land Mortgage Bank.

» National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is the apex institution of Rural Credit. It was established on 12th July, 1982 by the merger of Agriculture Credit department and reconstruction of Agriculture and Development Corporation of the Reserve Bank of India. Its establishment is based on the recommendations of Shivraman Committee.
» Authorised share capital of NABARD was Rupees 500 crore. However, after an amendment its authorized share increased upto 5000 crore with effect from 1st February, 2001.

» Food stocks are maintained by the central government for 3 purposes:
  (i) Maintaining prescribed buffer stock norms for food security,
  (ii) Monthly supply through Public Distribution System (PDS),
  (iii) Market intervention to stabilise open market prices.
» Buffer stock on January 1, 2002 was a 58 million tonnes.

Major crops of India :
(a) Kharif Crops : Sown in July and harvested in October. They include Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Sugarcane, Soyabean, Groundnut.
(b) Rabi Crops : Sown in October and harvested in March /April. They include Wheat, Barley, Gram, Tur, Rapeseed, Mustard.
(c) Zayad Crops : Sown during March to June. It include Watermelons, Vegetables, Moong etc.