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Jahangir ( 1605 - 1627 )

» Salim, son of Akbar, came to the throne after Akbar's death in 1605. He issued 12 ordinances.
» He is known for his strict administration of justice. He established Zanjir-i-Adal (i.e. Chain of Justice) at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
» In 1611, Jahangir married Mihar-un-nisa, widow of Sher Afghan, a Persian nobleman of Bengal. Later on she was given the title Nurjahan. Nurjahan excercised tremendous influence over the state affairs. She was made the official Padshah Begum.
» Jahangir issued coins jointly in Nurjahan's name and his own.
» Jahangir also married Manmati / Jagat Gosai / Jodha Bai of Marwar, and a Kachhwaha princess.
» In 1608, Captain William Hawkins, a representative of East India Company came to Jahangir's court. He was given the mansab of 400. In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe, an ambassador of King James I of England also came to his court. Though initially Jahangir resisted, later on he granted permission to the English to establish a trading port at Surat.
» A political triumph during Jahangir reign was the submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar (1615). Jahangir captured the strong fort of Kangara (1620). A part of Ahmadnagar was also annexed .Malik Amber ceded back to the Mughal the territory of Balaghat (Maharashtra).
» His reign was marked by several revolts. His son Khusrau, who received patronage of 5th Sikh Guru Arjun Dev, revolted against Jahangir (1605). Arjun Dev, was later sentenced to death for his blessing to the rebel prince (1606). During his last period, Khurram (Shanjahan), son of Jahangir, and Mahavat Khan, military general of Jahangir also revolted (Khurram : 1622-25 and Mahavat Khan : 1626-27).
» He wrote his memoirs Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian.
» He was buried in Lahore.

Shahjahan ( 1628 - 58 )

» Mother's name-Jagat Gosai / Jodha Bai (daughter of Raja Jagat Singh).
» Shahjahan ascended the throne in 1628 after his father's death.
» He was best known for his Deccan and foreign policies.
» The first thing that he had to face was revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujhar Singh Bundela of Orchha: 1628-35) and the Deccan (Khan-i-Jahan Lodhi, the governor of Deccan: 1629-31)
» Three years after his accession, his beloved wife Mum taj Mahal (original name- Arzumand Bano) died in 1631. To perpetuate her memory he built the Taj Mahal at Agra in 1632-53.
» In 1631-32, he defeated the Portuguese.
» In addition to Jahangir's empire, Nizam Shahi's dynasty of Ahmadnagar was brought under Mughal control (1633) by Shahjahan. The Deccan Sultanate of Bijapur and Golconda accepted his suzreignty in 1636.
» He sent his army to Balkh in order to secure the defence of North-Western India (1647). Shajahan who had recovered Kandhar (Afghanistan) in 1638 from the Iranians lost it again in 1647 despite three campaigns under prince Murad Aurangzeb and Dara.
» Shahjahan's reign is described by French traveller Bernier and Ta vernier and the Italian traveller Nicoli Manucd. Peter Mundi described the famine that occured during Shahjahan's time.
» Shahjahan s reign is said to have marked the pinnacle of the Mughal dynasty and empire. He is known for the promotion of art, culture and architecture during his time. The Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Taj Mahal are some of the magnificent structures built during his reign.
» Shahjahan’s failing health set off the war of succession among his four sons in 1657. Aurangzeb emerged the victor who crowned himself in July 1658. j an was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb in the Agra Fort where he died in captivity in 1666. He was buried at Taj (Agra).

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