Indian History
General Knowledge

The Sangam Period

The Sangam Period (lst-3rd Century AD)

The Cheras

» The Chera country occupied the portion of both Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
» The capital of Cheras was Vanjji.
» Its main ports were Muzris and Tondi.
» The Romans set up two regiment at Muzris (identical with Cranganore) in Chera country. They also built a temple of Augustus at Muzris.
» One of the earliest and better known among Chera rulers was Udiyangeral. It is said that he fed both armies of Kurukshetra war and so earned the title Udiyangeral.
» The greatest of Chera king, however, was Senguttuvan or Red Chera It is said that he invaded the North and even crossed the Ganges.
» He was also the founder of the famous Pattini cult related to worship of goddess of chastity-Kannagi.

The Cholas

» The Chola kingdom called as Cholamandalam was situated to the North-East of Pandya kingdom between Pennar and Vellar rivers.
» The Chola kingdom corresponded to the modem Taniore and Tiruchchirappalli districts.
» Its inland capital was Uraiyaur, a place famous for cotton trade. One of the main sources of wealth for Cholas was trade in cotton cloth.
» Puhar identical with Kaveripattanam was the main port of Cholas and served as alternative capital of Cholas.
» The earliest known Chola king was Elara who conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for nearly 50 years.
» Their greatest king was Karikala (man with charred leg) who founded Puhar (Kaveripattanam) and constructed 160 km of embankment along the Kaveri river with the help of 12,000 Sri Lankan slaves.
» They maintained an efficient navy.
» The Cholas were wiped out in the attack of Pallavas from the North.

The Pandyas

» The Pandyas were first mentioned by Megasthanese, who said their Kingdom was famous for pearls.
» The Pandya territory included modern districts of Tirunelvelli, Ramand and Madurai in Tamil Nadu. It had its capital at Madurai, situated on the banks of Vaigai river.
» The Pandya king profited from trade with Roman Empire and sent emissaries to Roman emperor Augustus and Trojan.
» The Pandyas find mention in the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
» The earliest known Pandyan ruler was Mudukudumi.
» The greatest Pandya king, Nendujelian, accused Kovalan of theft. As a result, the city of Madurai was laid under a curse by Kannagi (Kovalan's wife).