Indian History
General Knowledge

Sangam Administration

Sangam Administration

» The king was the centre of administration. He was called Ko, Mannam, Vendan Korravan or Iraivan.
» Avai was the court of the crowned monarch.
» Important officials (Panchmahasabha):
  1. Amaichchar (Ministers)
  2. Purohitar (Priests)
  3. Dutar (Envoys)
  4. Senapatiyar (Commander)
  5. Orar (Spies)

» The kingdom was divided into Mandalam / Nadu (Province), Ur (town), Perur (Big village), Sirur (Small village).
» Pattmam (Name of coastal town), Puhar (Harbors areas), Cheri (Suburb of town).
» Revenue Administration : Karai (Land Tax), Irai (Tribute paid by feudatories and booty collected in war),Ulgu (Custom duties), Iravu (Extra demand or forced gift), Variyam (A well known unit of territory yielding tax), Variyar{Tax collector).
» It is said that in Chola territory, watered by Kaveri, the space in which an elephant could lie down produced enough to feed seven persons. It implies the lands were very fertile with irrigation facilities.

Sangam Literature

» Sangam was an assembly of Tamil poets held under royal patronage of Pandyan kings in Madurai. According to tradition, the assembly lasted for 9,990 years and was attended by 8,598 poets and 197 Pandyan kings.
» The first Sangam was attended by Gods and legendary sages All its works have perished.
» Of the second Sangam, the only surviving work is Tolkappiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar written by Tolakapiyyar.
» Of the third Sangam, the mostly works are surviving. These are Ettutogai (i.e.8 anthologies), Pattupattu (i.e. 10 idylls), Patinenkilakanakku (i.e. 18 didactical texts) etc.
» Ettutogai and Pattupattu are called Melakanakku (18 major works) and narrative in form. Patinenkanakku is called Kilakanakku (18 minor works) and didactive in form.
» Kural or Muppal, a part of Patinenkilakanakku and written by Tiruvalluvar is called The Bible of Tamil Land'. It is treatise on polity, ethics and social norms.

The Epics

» Silappadikaram (the story of the Anklet) : Written by Hango Adigal, it deals with the story of Kovalan and Madhavi of Kaveripattinam. It is called Tlliyad of Tamil poetry'.
» Manimekalai : Written by Sittalai Sattanar it deals with the adventures of Manimekalai, the daughter bom of Kovalan and Madhavi. It is a sequel of Silappadikaram and strongly tinged with Buddhism.
» Sivaga Sindamaani (Jivaka Chitamani ) : Written by Jain Tiruttakrdevas and strongly tinged with Jainism.
» Bharatam : Written by Pemdevannr