Indian History
General Knowledge

Expansion of British Power in Mysore & Punjab

Expansion of British Power in Mysore & Punjab

Haidar Ali ( 1761 - 82 )

» Haidar Ali began his career as a soldier in the service of the Mysore state, later he become the faujdar of Dindigul. He established a modem arsenal in Dindigul with the help of French.
» 1761, he overthrowed the Nanjarajar (the powerful Prime Minister of Wodeyar King Krishraja I) and usurped power, though continuing to recognize Krishnraja I as the lawful ruler.
» First Anglo-Mysore war (1766-69) : Haider Ali defeated the British. The Treaty of Madras (1769) signed.
» Second Anglo-Mysore war (1780-84) : Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe, which was in Haidar Ali's territory.
» Haidar Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Maratha and captured Arcot (Capital of Carnatic state).
» In 1781, Haidar Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyrecoot.
» He died during the Second Anglo-Mysore war.

Tipu Sultan ( 1782 - 99 )

» Haidar Ali was succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan in 1782.
» He continued the Second Anglo-Mysore war till 1784.
» The Treaty of Mangalore (1784) was signed by Tipu Sultan which ended the Second Anglo-Mysore war.
» Third Anglo-Mysore war (1790-92) : Maratha and Nizam aided the British, Cornwallis capatured Bangalore. By the Treaty of Seringapatnam (1792), Tipu ceded half of his territory.

» Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1799) : Lord Wellesly attacked and Tipu Sultan died.
» Tipu was the only Indian ruler who have understood the importance of economic strength as the foundation of military strength.
» Tipu established the embassies to France, Turkey, Iran and Pegu to develop foreign trade.
» Tipu planted a 'tree of liberty' at his capital Seringapatnam and became a member of Jacobian Club.


» Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last Guru of the Sikhs, transformed the religious sect into a military brotherhood.
» In the confusion and disorder that followed the invasion of Nadir shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali, the sikhs increased their military streng strong power.

» Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1792-1839) : He was the greatest Indian ruler of his time and founder of the Sikh rule in the Punjab. Born in 1780 at Gujranwala, he occupied Lahore in 1799 and made it his capital. He conquered Amritsar in 1802, occupied Ludhiana and after incessant wars, annexed Kangra, Attock, Multan, Kashmir, Hazara, Bannu, Derajat and Peshawar. He died in 1839.

» The Sikh power was broken by the British after the death of Ranjit Singh.

» First Anglo-Sikh war (1845-46) : Sikhs were defeated in all the four battles at Mudki, Ferozshah, Aliwal and Sobraon. The Treaty of Lahore (1846) ended the war. Sir Henry Lawerence became the first resident.

» Second Anglo-Sikh war (1848-49) : Dalhousie annexed Punjab. Sir John Lawerence became the first chief commissioner of Punjab.