Mughal Period

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Mughal Period (1526-40 and 1555-1857)

Babur ( 1526 - 30 )

» The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by Babur in 1526.
» He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother).
» Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 21,1526 and established Mughal dynasty which lasted till the establishment of British rule in India.
» In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa.
» In 1528, he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi.
» In 1529, he defeated Muhammad Lodhi (unde of Ibrahim Lodhi) at Ghaghra.
» In 1530, he died at Agra. His tomb is at Kabul.
» He adopted Tughluma and flanking party system and first to use gunpowder and artillery in India.
» He wrote autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki in which he gives an excellent account of India and his empire. Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated in Persian (named Babumama) by Abdur Rahim Khanekhana and in English by Madam Bebridge.
» He compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) and Mubaiyan (in Persian). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters of Babur.

Humayun ( 1530-40 and 1555 -56 )

» He was the son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530. His succession was challenged by his brothers Kamran, Hindal and Askari along with the Afghans.
» He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj / Bilgram(1540) and was completely defeated by him.
» He escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years of his life in exile
» After Sher Shah’s death Humayun invaded India in 1555 and defeated his brothers the Afghans. He once again became the ruler of India.
» He died while climbing down the stairs of his library (at Din Panah) in 1556 and was buried in Delhi.
» His sister, Gulbadan Begum wrote his biography Humayunama.
» He built Din Panah at Delhi as his second capital.

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