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Evolution of mobile communication systems

Evolution of mobile communication systems

Wireless mobile communication system has become more popular due to rapid changes in mobile technology. Fast development of wireless communication systems are due to very high increase in telecoms customers. The revolution of mobile communications is from 1G-the first generation, 2G-the second generation, 3G-the third generation, 4G-the fourth generation, 5G-the fifth generation.

First Generation (1G)

The first generation of mobile communication technology emerged in 1980s. The first generation mobile communication system used analog transmission of speech signal services. In the year 1979, the first cellular system in the world operated by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT) in Tokyo, Japan. At that time the most popular analogue systems were Nordic Mobile Telephones (NMT) and Total Access Communication Systems (TACS), some other analog systems also introduced in 1980s across the Europe. The main drawback of the first generation is all of those systems offered handover and roaming capabilities but cellular networks were unable to interoperate between the countries. In the year 1982s Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was launched in United States. AMPS and TACS use the Frequency Modulation (FM) technique and frequency division duplex (FDD) for radio transmission. In this generation uses Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), channel bandwidth is 30KHz.

Second Generation (2G)

Second generation enabled to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and Multimedia messages (MMS) for various mobile phone networks. The second generation telecommunication networks were commercially launched on the Global system for Mobile communications (GSM) standard in 1991.Three primary goals and benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. Second generation can be divided into two standards based multiple access used: TDMA based and CDMA based. 2.5G was GPRS which could enable much faster communications uses packet switching and circuit switching domain to provide data rate up to 144kbps. In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies.

Third Generation (3G)

Third generation technology is carried out by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the year 1980. 3G communication frequency spectrum between 400 MHz to 3GHz. 3G technology approved by both the government and communication companies unanimously. 3G technical specifications were made available to the public united the name International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). The first commercial 3G technology was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001 of W-CDMA. It was initially somewhat limited in scope; broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability. 3rd generation is a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunication services and networks that comply with the IMT-2000. Advantages of using 3rd generation in fixed Wireless Internet Access, Wireless Voice Telephony, Video calls, Mobile Internet Access and Mobile TV.

Fourth Generation (4G)

Increasing growth of user demand and also the emergence of new technologies in the mobile communications have triggered researchers and industries to come up with comprehensive manifestations of the upcoming fourth generation (4G) wireless communications in mobile technology. The main concept in fourth generation for the transition to the All-IP is to have a common platform for all the technologies that have to develop so far and to harmonize with user expectations of the many service to be provided. The main difference between the All-IP and GSM/3G is that the functionality of RNC and BSC is now distributed to BTS and a set of servers and gateways. In contrast to 3G, the new 4G framework to be established will try to accomplish new levels of user experience and multi service capacity by also integrating all the mobile technologies that exist (e.g. GSM, GPRS, IMT-2000, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee). 4G technology data transfer will be much faster and will be less expensive. 4G will be so smart for friendly operating functions flexibility and any desired service with reasonable quality of services at anytime, anywhere. Fourth generation mobile communication technology started in 2010 but will mass market in about 2015-2016. Forth generation technology may provide peak data rate of 1Gbps for downlink and 500Mbps for Uplink. 4G is considered as Long Term Evolution (LTE) and gives the additional features of 3G, like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Video chart, Mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services: voice and data. 4G is widely accepted that the individual (wireless or/and wire) access networks will interface to core and/or backbone network elements over the IP protocol, the lingua franca of networking technology. Regardless of their particular technological blueprints these wireless access networks are expected to have a dynamic address assignment mechanism that is capable of associating a short-lived or long-lived IP address to the respective wireless interface at the mobile terminal, A transparent IP forwarding service that is accessible over the logical termination of the IP layer at the mobile terminal and one or more gateways at the wireless access network infrastructure.

Fifth Generation (5G)

Fifth generation technology is very fast and reliable to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market. All the services of the networks and applications are going to be accessed by the single IP as telephony, gaming and many other multimedia applications. Through this 5G technology, worldwide cellular technology comes under one umbrella.5G networks carriers’ extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast with in the upcoming mobile operating system. Fifth generation mobile with Nanocore is a convergence with Nanotechnology, Cloud Computing and the entire IP platform. Fifth generation requires secure and reliable service providers, capabilities that operators have deep expertise in. 5G technology provides subscriber supervision tools for action and offer high resolution for cell phone users and bi-directional large bandwidth. The uploading and downloading data speed touching the peak.