General English

Cloze Test Passage - IX

In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested one of which fits the blanks appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case

Desire and action are often coordinated in that desire may the person to action or that desire may (1)....the person to action or that desire may be (2).....from action . If P is seen as trying to do X, it is often inferred that P desires X. However, desire and action are not (3).....coordinated. The person may desire X without (4).....in any action directed towards the attainment of X. This event happens when X appears (5).....or when the other effects resulting from the action (6).....to attain X are sufficiently undesirable as to (7).....the desire for X. Sometimes, of course, no action is necessary; the desire may or may not be (8).....quite independently of P’s action. Furthermore, a given desire may lead to different actions, depending upon the environmental requirements. Actions are (9).....not only by desire, but also by the way the person (10).....the causal structure of the environment.

1. (a) dampen (b) hinder (c) indulge (d) arouse (e) prohibit
2. (a) expelled (b) ceased (c) abstained (d) refrained (e) inferred
3. (a) invariably (b) hopefully (c) deliberately (d) purposely (e) negatively
4. (a) wanting (b) associating (c) engaging (d) supporting (e) exhibiting
5. (a) manageable (b) valuable (c) unattainable (d) reachable (e) approachable
6. (a) hostile (b) necessary (c) incidental (d) insensible (e) detrimental
7. (a) express (b) appreciate (c) reciprocate (d) damage (e) negate
8. (a) realised (b) hypothesised (c) verbalised (d) criticised (e) actualised
9. (a) projected (b) determined (c) controlled (d) galvanised (e) pronounced
10. (a) downgrades (b) fabricates (c) develops (d) sees (e) enlarges

Answers :
(1) (d), (2) (a), (3) (a), (4) (c), (5) (c), (6) (b), (7) (a), (8) (a), (9) (a), (10) (d).