General Knowledge



Symbol : N,
Atomic Number — 7,
Mass Number — 17

Occurrence and uses of Nitrogen: Nitrogen is the main component of the atmospheric air, and, in the form of compound, it is also found as ammonia, as ammonium compounds, and in nitrate forms. There are no allotropes of nitrogen like carbon, and, according to the volume, it is 78% in atmospheric air.

Nitrogen is also used in the electric bulbs and thermometer for measuring the high temperature. It is also used in the artificial pregnancy of cows for which the sperm of bull is kept in it.

Fixation of Nitrogen

The process of transformation of atmospheric nitrogen by the bacteria in the roots of useful nitrogenous compounds is called fixation of nitrogen. The fixation of nitrogen takes place both naturally and artificially. Symbiotic Bacteria namely rhizobium take part in the nitrogen fixation process in the joints of the roots of the leguminous plants. The process of transformation of nitrogenous compounds into nitrogen is called denitrification. Such process is performed by certain bacteria called denitrifying bacteria. Also, in the process of denitrification, released nitrogen by its compounds directly goes to the atmosphere.

Compounds of Nitrogen

Ammonia (NH3) :
Ammonia is manufactured at industrial level by Haber’s process.

Liquefied ammonia is used in freezing ice in the refrigerators, ammonia is used in the production of ammonium salts and urea, in cleaning, in the production of nitric acid (HNO3) by Oswald’s process and in the production of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) by Solvay’s process, in the production of hydrogen, etc.