General Knowledge



Symbol : Na,
Atomic Number — 11,
Mass Number — 23

Sodium is a highly reactive metal in periodic table and found in Earths crust (2.27% of total metals); sodium is a soft metal and can easily be cut with knife.

Occurrence and Extraction :
Due to highly reactive element, it does not exist freely in nature, but it is found in the form of ores of chloride, nitrate, carbonate, borate, etc.

Physical and Chemical Properties :
Sodium is white like silver, but it is very soft and light, so it can be cut through knife and floats in water. Due to a highly reactive nature, sodium is kept inside the kerosene oil (K-oil). But sodium is soluble in benzene and ether.

Uses :
As a reducing agent, in synthetic reactions, and in making tetraethyl lead (anti-knocking) compound by the use of an alloy of sodium-lead.

Compounds of Sodium

❖ Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) :
The compound NaOH is called caustic soda, which is used as a petroleum purifier, in manufacturing of soaps, to produce glazing in pulp paper, cotton cloth, etc., and in the production of the artificial silk.

❖ Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3):
It is also called edible soda, and breads get such exposer by an emergent gas CO2.

❖ Sodium Chloride (NaCl) :
This is called common salt or ordinary salt, which is prepared by the vaporization process of sea water.

❖ Borex-sodium Tetra Borate Deca Hydrate (Na2B4O4.10H2O):
This is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water.