Computer Fundamental
Computer Tutorial

Data, Information and Knowledge

Data, Information and Knowledge


Data is the raw material of information. It is the product of research and discovery. A single piece of data has no meaning unless the context is understood. Data needs to be transformed to information. Data represents unorganized and unprocessed facts.

» Usually data is static in nature.
» It can represent a set of discrete facts about events.
» Data is a prerequisite to information.
» An organization sometimes has to decide on the nature and volume of data that is required for creating the necessary information.


Information is a flow of messages. The patterns and relationship in the data is pointed out and discussed.
The data is made informative and must be put into a context and linked like data.

» Information can be considered as an aggregation of data (processed data) which makes decision making easier.
» Information has usually got some meaning and purpose.


Knowledge is a multifaceted concept with multilayered meaning. The history of philosophy since the classical Greek period can be regarded as never ending search for the meaning of knowledge

» By knowledge we mean human understanding of a subject matter that has been acquired through proper study and experience.
» Knowledge is usually based on learning, thinking, and proper understanding of the problem area.
» Knowledge is not information and information is not data.
» Knowledge is derived from information in the same way information is derived from data.
» We can view it as an understanding of information based on its perceived importance or relevance to a problem area.
» It can be considered as the integration of human perceptive processes that helps them to draw meaningful conclusions.

Data, Information and Knowledge Relation

Data, Information and Knowledge Relation