Computer Fundamental
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Computer Memory

Computer Memory

The computer’s memory stores data, instructions required during the processing of data, and output results. Storage may be required for a limited period of time, instantly, or, for an extended period of time. Different types of memories, each having its own unique features, are available for use in a computer. The cache memory, registers, and RAM are fast memories and store the data and instructions temporarily during the processing of data and instructions. The secondary memory like magnetic disks and optical disks have large storage capacities and store the data and instructions permanently, but are slow memory devices. The memories are organized in the computer in a manner to achieve high levels of performance at the minimum cost.
Following are are generally Computer Memory :
1. Primary Memory/Main Memory
2. Secondary Memory
3. CPU Registers
4. Cache Memory


Primary storage, also known as main storage or memory, is the main area in a computer in which data is stored for quick access by the computer's processor. It is a chip mounted on the motherboard of computer.
Primary memory is categorized into two main types-
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Read Only Memory (ROM)


The secondary memory is also called the storage device of computer. Secondary storage devices, as indicated by the name, save data after it has been saved by the primary storage device. Secondary storage is non-volatile and has lower cost per bit stored but it generally has an operating speed far slower than that of primary storage. It is used primarily to store large volume of data on permanent basis that can be partially transferred to primary storage, whenever required for processing.
General Secondary Memoryes are :
Hard Disk
Floppy Disk
Zip Disk
Optical Disk
Magenetic Disk