Computer Fundamental
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Component of Computer

Component of Computer

The internal architectural design of computers differs from one system model to another. However, the basic organization remains the same for all computer systems.
A computer system consists of mainly three basic units; namely input unit, central processing unit and output unit. Central Processing unit further includes Storage unit, Arithmetic logic unit and control unit.

All types of computers follow the same basic logical structure and perform the five basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users. The following five units also called "The functional units" are follows :

basic component of computer

Input Unit

This unit contains devices with the help of which we enter data into the computer. This unit creates a link between the user and the computer. The input devices translate the information into a form understandable by the computer.

Output Unit

The output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from the computer. This unit is a link between the computer and the users. Output devices translate the computer's output into a form understandable by the users.

Memory or Storage Unit

Memory Unit stores the data, instructions, intermediate results and output, temporarily, during the processing of data. This memory is also called the main memory or primary memory of the computer. The input data that is to be processed is brought into the main memory before processing. The instructions required for processing of data and any intermediate results are also stored in the main memory. The output is stored in memory before being transferred to the output device. CPU can work with the information stored in the main memory.

Arithmetic Logic Unit

All calculations and comparisons, based on the instructions provided, are carried out within the ALU. It performs arithmetic functions like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and also logical operations like greater than, less than and equal to etc.

Control Unit

Controlling of all operations like input, processing and output are performed by control unit. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations inside the computer.